Φυσική δραστηριότητα – άσκηση και παράγοντες καρδιαγγειακού κινδύνου: υπέρταση, δυσλιπιδαιμία, παχυσαρκία

Δημήτριος Ηλίας Μπούρδας

Περίληψη


Όλο και περισσότερα ευρήματα μελετών αναδεικνύουν τη συμμετοχή σε προγράμματα φυσικής δραστηριότητας και παρεμβατικής άσκησης ως απαραίτητα συστατικά για τη μείωση της σοβαρότητας των καρδιαγγειακών παραγόντων κινδύνου, όπως η υπέρταση, η δυσλιπιδαιμία και η παχυσαρκία. Ωστόσο, είναι λιγότερο σαφές εάν και ποιος τύπος παρεμβάσεων φυσικής δραστηριότητας και άσκησης (αερόβια άσκηση, δυναμική άσκηση αντίστασης ή και τα δύο) ή χαρακτηριστικά άσκησης (συχνότητα, ένταση, διάρκεια και όγκος) θα αποφέρουν περισσότερο όφελος για κάθε ξεχωριστό παράγοντα κίνδυνου. Ο σκοπός της μελέτης αυτής είναι η παρουσίαση της σχέσης ανάμεσα στη φυσική δραστηριότητα - άσκηση και τους σπουδαιότερους παράγοντες επικινδυνότητας καρδιολογικών νοσημάτων (υπέρταση, δυσλιπιδαιμία, και παχυσαρκία). Η παρούσα μελέτη αναθεωρεί και κάνει συστάσεις για τη φυσική δραστηριότητα και την παρεμβατική άσκηση, με στόχο τη βέλτιστη διαχείριση της καρδιαγγειακής υγείας σε άτομα με παράγοντες καρδιαγγειακού κινδύνου. Η καθοδήγηση που παρέχεται απευθύνεται σε όλους τους εμπλεκόμενους φορείς, συναφείς κλάδους και ειδικότητες, υπεύθυνους χάραξης πολιτικής για τη δημόσια υγεία αλλά και μεμονωμένους πολίτες. Με βάση τις προηγούμενες και τις τρέχουσες ανασκοπήσεις της βιβλιογραφίας, διατυπώνονται τεκμηριωμένες επιστημονικά συστάσεις σχετικά με τον τύπο, τον όγκο και την ένταση της φυσικής δραστηριότητας σε άτομα με παράγοντες καρδιαγγειακού κινδύνου. Συμπερασματικά, αερόβια άσκηση που υπερβαίνει το κατώφλι της έντασης των 4,5 ΜΕΤ και διαρκεί 30 min από μερικές φορές την εβδομάδα έως κάθε μέρα, έχει θεαματικά αποτελέσματά σε σχέση με την υπέρταση, την κατανομή των λιπιδίων στο αίμα και την παχυσαρκία. Η σημαντική αξία της άσκησης ως μέσο πρόληψης των καρδιοπαθειών πλεονεκτεί σε δύο σημαντικά σημεία. Αφενός, στη διατήρηση της υγείας και ευρρωστίας του ανθρώπινου οργανισμού με μείωση της πιθανότητας εμφάνισης καρδιοπαθειών έως και 2-3 φορές, και αφετέρου, στο χαμηλό κόστος.


Λέξεις κλειδιά


πρόληψη, αερόβια-ισοτονική άσκηση, άσκηση δύναμης, στεφανιαία νόσος.

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